Flotation characteristics of gold-bearing ore

Flotation has been an effective method of gold ores and metal-containing sulfide ore processing, gold ore flotation characteristics of several aspects can be summarized as follows:
(1) The flotation method is mainly used to treat various types of vein gold ore, but it is rarely applied to gold deposits. However, it should be pointed out that in the 1920s, there was a flotation treatment of gold concentrate re-concentration concentrate, which achieved good results and was later left out. In recent years, the flotation of gold has regained some attention. Therefore, the traditional concept of no gold flotation should be broken.
The flotation of vein gold ore still occupies a dominant position in China. Most of the gold selection plants in the country use a combination of single flotation or flotation and other methods of metallurgy. Although in recent years the heap leaching and all slime cyanidation gold extraction and other chemical method for dealing with some low-grade and clay, oxidation and other hard mineral stone on a wide range of applications, but on the whole, with gold, flotation still Will continue to work. In addition to the treatment of gold-bearing ore, the use of flotation to treat the old tailings and leaching residue has also been successfully applied.
(2) Flotation is suitable for the treatment of fine ore-impregnated gold ore. The coarse-grained gold is usually recovered by amalgamation or re-election method. The fine gold is suitable for recovery by cyanide and other chemical gold extraction methods, according to the particle size of gold in the specific ore. Characteristics and the properties of associated metal minerals are a reasonable approach to the combination of flotation and other methods of metallurgy.
(3) Flotation method is suitable for the treatment of gold-bearing sulfide ore, but it is still difficult to float high- arsenic , high-sulfur, fine-grain gold and multi-metal gold-bearing ore. For oxidized ore with high mud content and high oxidation degree, it is not easy to adopt flotation method.
Conditions (4) Floating gold (drug, process, equipment) and in particular non-ferrous metal sulfide ore flotation conditions similar to copper sulfide ore. General gold-bearing quartz vein ore flotation process is relatively simple, especially conducive place to build small gold plant.
(5) Floating gold process measures
1 According to the low grade of gold in the ore (expressed in g/t) and the high mixing of mining surrounding rock. It is necessary to strengthen the selection of hand-selected waste rock, which is conducive to improving the selected grade. This is more suitable for medium and small flotation plants;
2 According to the characteristics of the uneven distribution of the size distribution of gold minerals in some ores, the stage grinding and floating process should be adopted; however, due to the limitations of technical and economic conditions, most local small and medium-sized plants use a period of grinding and floating, which cannot meet the requirements of ore properties and grind. The fineness of the ore is not easy to guarantee, and the insufficient fineness of grinding is a problem worthy of attention in the current small and medium gold selection plants;
3 According to the characteristics of some gold ore mud, it is easy to adopt the pre-washing and mud-sand sorting process. Some large-scale gold-making plants in China use the washing process to solve the problem of crusher blockage and some of the mined mines are treated separately. It will also improve the flotation indicators;
4 The selection of gold prescriptions is relatively simple, but as the nature of the ore is becoming more and more complex, the current pharmaceuticals of some plants cannot meet the needs of complex ores. At present, mixed drugs (mostly mixed with xanthate and butyl ammonium black drugs) have been adopted by most selected plants, which has improved the selection index, and the application of new drugs has also received attention. The authors have successfully promoted the application of isoamyl xanthate in the selection of several gold-removing plants in place of Dinghuang; it has improved the gold selection index and economic benefits;
5 The gold floating process is relatively simple. Similarly, the gold ore flotation process should be diversified in view of the trend of lower ore grades and the complexity of ore properties. The use of priority enrichment operations has been adopted in some gold-sorting plants that contain some of the easy-to-float minerals. The branch flotation process suitable for low-grade ore flotation is also applied by several authors in several gold-exchange plants.
6 Most of the plants use the traditional XJK flotation machine, and the same reasons as above should be updated. At present, 4M 3 and 14M 3 large flotation machines (inflatable agitation type) have been successfully applied in two large mines, while SF type flotation machines suitable for small and medium-sized gold selection plants are also obtained in some gold flotation plants. Successfully applied.
The use of new flotation equipment in the gold flotation plant should pay attention to the large-scale and small-scale combination; the selection of coarse particles and the selection of fine particles simultaneously. In particular, the new flotation machine suitable for coarse flotation can be used to replace the current amalgamation method and the re-election method to recover the coarse gold between the coarse grinding machine and the classifier, which can solve the mercury pollution problem and solve the re-election. Unstable, large amount of intermediate products, long process, and large gold loss.
Flotation equipment suitable for recycling fine minerals, such as improved new flotation columns, has been adopted in foreign gold mines. Domestic attention should also be paid to strengthen the recycling of fine-grained gold. [next]
7 Minerals containing iron sulfide more or less due to the vein gold ore. If it is closely associated with gold, it is a pyrite with better floatability. Pyrite is a natural carrier of gold minerals and is advantageous for floating gold. However, if the gold and flotation are complex, the arsenic pyrite with poor floatability, the pyrrhotite, etc. are closely related or the pyrite content is too high (high sulfur ore), the flotation of gold is difficult to obtain good results. . It is also complicated by the use of chemical gold extraction to treat such ores (calcination, pressurization, oxidation, bacterial oxidation, etc.) making it more important to find effective flotation methods for such ores.
8About flotation of gold-bearing polymetallic ores
Among the ores, gold is the main metal, and other metal minerals such as copper, lead and zinc have the comprehensive recovery value as the associated minerals. It is difficult to flotation of such ore, especially the method such as cyanide gold extraction. Chemical treatment methods are also difficult to work with, so flotation processes treat such ores. It is also one of the most important problems in the flotation of gold ore.
If gold is an associated element and other metal minerals are primary metals, it is attributed to a metal ore associated with gold ( silver ). The flotation process of polymetallic ores is further complicated by the need to comprehensively recover the gold (silver) therein. This is another topic worthy of attention in the current gold ore flotation.
Regardless of whether gold (silver) is used as the main metal or as an associated element, it is difficult to recover the gold due to the influence of sulfide minerals such as copper, zinc and iron, because during the flotation, gold is concentrated in concentrates such as copper and lead. Because the optimum process conditions suitable for gold are not suitable for other metal minerals, such as the separation of metal minerals, the inhibitors Na 2 S, CaO 2 and the like will also inhibit gold to varying degrees; the danger of cyanide to gold Larger, it is avoided in flotation plants with recycled gold (silver); flotation concentration suitable for gold particles (required concentration during rough selection) may not be suitable for non-ferrous metal minerals; gold particles may be produced in grinding Over-grinding, deformation or hardening, the surface embedded with other particles will be polluted and reduce the floatability of gold; the total content of useful minerals in polymetallic ore is large, competitive adhesion on the surface of the bubble, gold grade and recovery rate are difficult to improve and many more.
At present, the measures that can be taken are to find a reasonable and effective pharmaceutical system; adopt a reasonable process; add intermediate sorting operations to recover coarse gold monomer, and use re-election equipment (short cone cyclone, shaker, etc.) The monomer gold is recovered from the flotation mixed concentrate; the gold is pre-selected; the gold is recovered from the flotation tailings; and the gold is recovered into the pyrite concentrate. In short, the flotation of such ore still needs to go deep into work.
In summary, it can be considered that the flotation of gold minerals is basically consistent with the common heavy metal sulfide minerals in terms of the basic theory and general law, but the gold mineral flotation also has certain special characteristics.
Despite the increasing complexity of the gold-bearing ore being processed, the chemical gold extraction method has shown greater advantages due to various technical and economic considerations and needs, but for the gold ore that can be effectively recovered by flotation and High-arsenic, high-sulfur and multi-metal gold-bearing ores that are difficult to handle by chemical gold extraction are also necessary for flotation or as a primary process or as a combined process for chemical extraction. In particular, the current flotation method is still generally applicable to most small and medium-sized gold mines in China. Therefore, flotation is still a major method of selection.

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