There are several stages in laser-material interaction

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At present, laser processing laser is more than infrared. According to the temperature rise caused by the absorption of laser energy, the laser-material interaction process can be divided into the following stages:
(1) Heating-plasma phenomenon above the vaporization point. The laser vaporizes the material to form a plasma, which is often seen in deep penetration welding of lasers. It is also possible to use a plasma recoil effect to impact-harden the material.
(2) Above the melting point but below the vaporization point heat. The laser melts the material and forms a bath. Outside the molten pool is mainly heat transfer, there are three physical processes in the molten pool: heat transfer, convection and mass transfer. The main processes are laser melting, laser cladding, laser alloying and laser conduction welding.
(3) The phase above the transformation point but below the melting point is the solid phase transition of the material. There is a physical process of heat transfer and mass transfer. The main process is laser transformation hardening, which mainly studies the effects of laser process parameters and material properties on hardening.
(4) After the phase transition point is heated, when the incident laser intensity is increased, the incident photons and the electrons in the gold crucible produce inelastic scattering, and the electrons acquire energy from the photons through the “inverse radiation effect”. Electrons in an excited state interact with phonons (lattices), transferring energy to the phonons, inducing strong lattice vibrations and heating the material. When the temperature is below the phase transition point, the material does not undergo structural changes. From the macroscopic point of view, the main physical process of laser-material interaction at this stage is heat transfer.
(5) No heat or basic optical stage. Microscopically, a laser is a photon of high degeneracy. When its power (energy) density is very low, most of the incident photons are electron-elastically scattered in the material (metal). The main physical process at this stage is reflection, Transmission and absorption. Due to the fact that the heat of absorption is low, it cannot be used for general hot processing. The main research content belongs to the basic optical range.
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